Who is a “Multimodal Transport Operator”?

Multimodal Transport Operator

Global exports over the last 3 years stand at an average of 18 trillion US Dollars. Businesses across the world deliver goods to their customers – both national as well as international, by various modes of transport. Good are transported over the road by trucks, by rail on freight trains, ocean freight on cargo ships, and by air on cargo flights.

Goods may be transported by a single mode of transport or it could be a combination of two or more modes. When goods are transported using two or more...


An apparent lacuna in the law relating to the sea-carriage of goods

Pictured: a container ship gets underway. Picture credit: Mohamed Aly via Pixabay.

Barrister Gregory Nell, SC, and chair of AMTAC discusses the law relating to section 11 of the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1991.

That section relates to the governing law of, and effectiveness of foreign jurisdiction and arbitration clauses in, certain contracts for the carriage of goods by sea.

In recent years, this law has been subject to considerable debate and scrutiny.

Because of the way the law works under...


What is “Shipped On Board” in Logistics?

shipped on board

For those in the shipping and freight industry, ‘shipped on board’ could be a familiar term. It means that specific goods have been received and loaded onboard the ship on the said date. Typically, shipped on board appears on all bills of lading.

It is a confirmation from the shipping company to the shipper or the party dispatching the goods that have been loaded onboard their ship. That sounds pretty straightforward, right?

Is it mandatory to show the shipped on board date on a bill of lading...


What is Switch Bill of Lading?

bill of lading

When we talk about shipping documentation, the first thing that comes to many people’s minds is the bill of lading. A typical bill of lading is a document that confirms the receipt of goods by the shipping company from a shipper, for transport. It also serves the purpose of proving the ownership of the cargo.

While there are several types of bills of lading, where does the switch bill of lading come in?

A switch bill of lading is not to be confused with another type of bill of lading. It is...


11 Popular Books On Maritime Security

maritime security

The world is changing and so is the maritime industry! Likewise, the rules and regulations that govern the marine industry evolve and emerge.

These rules and guidelines of the maritime industry are laid down and implemented in form of codes and conventions by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).  

Every seafarer has to follow the maritime codes and conventions, which constantly change due to factors that affect the maritime industry. 

Good books on Maritime security gives details of the...


Advantage and Disadvantages of Containerization

containerisation shipping

Containerization is hailed as one of the greatest innovations in the goods transportation industry. Ever since the American entrepreneur Malcolm Maclean came up with the first container made of corrugated steel in 1955, the container has evolved from the humble corrugated steel box to the present-day super-efficient intermodal container.

Such containers can be transported by ships or over the land on trucks or railways.

Intermodal containers are heavy-duty boxes of standard sizes made of Corten...


What is Ex-Works in Shipping?


The term Ex-Works (EXW) figures on top of the list of Incoterms® that is published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). One can also see it in several shipping documents and trading contracts.

What are Incoterms®? What does the term Ex-Works mean?

When the term Ex-Works is used on a shipping document, it means that the goods that are sold by the seller to the buyer will be delivered to the buyer at the seller’s storage facility or factory.

EXW can also be used to specify a place that...


Packing and Packaging in Logistics

packaging cargo

Many companies consider the packaging of their products to be a form of communication with their customers. Besides protecting the item inside the packaging, it is a marketing tool that gives information on the product as well as promotes it. The more visually pleasing a package, the more customers it attracts. 

Packaging and packing are two words that are often confused with each other. To put it in simple words, packaging is the covering of the individual units of an item that is available to...


What Is Break Bulk Cargo?

break bulk cargo

Trading centres of the world are separated by vast distances but globalization has brought them closer. Communication is almost instantaneous such as by phones, emails, and video calls. While this may be the case, goods still have to travel the distance between the seller and buyer.

Modern transport equipped with the latest technologies is a far cry from the horse-drawn carts, steam locomotives, and steamships of the past. Transport, as well as the equipment used in the handling of cargo, are...


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